درس 12


ردیف

واژه

معنی

نقش گرامری

1

media/ˈmidiə/

رسانه

اسم

All forms of online media are exploding in a similar fashion.
Autocrats can hold power indefinitely if they control the media, the military, business, the money, and information.

means of communication  means of expression  mode of expression  means  method

2

hotel/hoʊˈtel/

هتل

اسم

Well, if they turn you out, we'll just get a room at a hotel in Bartlesville.
If you want me to get a hotel room, I totally understand.

inn
motel  boarding house  guest house  lodge  bed and breakfast

3

tourism/ˈtʊrˌɪz.əm/

گردشگری توریسم

اسم

The off-season for tourism, late fall through winter, often brings hotel prices down 10 or more euro.  To score significant savings, research hotels in the cities you will be visiting before heading to Europe.
VisitNC.com - See the official tourism website for North Carolina for details about camping throughout the state, as well as information about things to enjoy doing and seeing during your stay.

4

medicine/ˈmed.ɪ.sən/

پزشکی

اسم

She wrenched open the medicine cabinet for the most powerful of the drugs Dr. Mallard prescribed for her and slammed the cabinet shut.
And besides, what a notion that medicine ever cured anyone!

medication  medicament  remedy  cure  nostrum

5

law/lɔ/

قانون علم حقوق، حقوق

اسم

In contrast, courts of law apply the law to everyone.
But the law of history relates to man.

rules and regulations  system of laws  body of laws  constitution  legislation

6

finance/fəˈnæns/

امور مالی

اسم

You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
Information regarding Australian state finance will be found under the heading of each state.

financial affairs  money matters  pecuniary matters  fiscal matters  economics

7

entertainment/ˌɛntərˈteɪnmənt/

سرگرمی

اسم

In his day, Shakespeare was low-brow entertainment for the common class.
"It was entertainment for a rainy day," I offered.

amusement  pleasure  leisure  relaxation  fun

8

social work/ˈsoʊʃl wɜːrk/

مددکاری اجتماعی

اسم

9

teaching/ˈtiː.tʃɪŋ/

تدریس معلمی

اسم

Our Order imitates the ancient societies that explained their teaching by hieroglyphics.
That was his way—his responsibility— teaching me a very important lesson.

educate  instruct  school  tutor  give lessons to

10

trade/treɪd/

کار حرفه

اسم

I have something you want and will trade her for it.
Carigara is open to coast trade, exports large quantities of hemp, raises much rice, and manufactures cotton and abaca fabrics.

commerce  buying and selling  dealing  traffic  trafficking

11

carpentry/ˈkɑrpəntri/

نجاری

اسم

In 1907 the school had 813 students, of whom 313 were girls; it has an academic department, a business school and courses in domestic science, in farming, dairying and gardening, and in masonry, carpentry, painting, blacksmithing, waggonmaking, shoemaking, steam-fitting, printing and other trades.
a day to Mr John Sponle, mason and orderer or setter-out (ordinator) of the king's works, and Geoffrey of Carlton "appareller" of the carpentry work, it is clear that they, and not Bernham, were the architects and builders.

12

plumbing/ˈplʌmɪŋ/

لوله‎کشی لوله (ساختمانی)

اسم

He had an interest in a plumbing supply store his brother Ralph operated.
Where the face of the warehouse is sufficiently close to the water to permit of the crane rope plumbing the hatches without requiring a jib of excessive radius, it is a very convenient plan to place the whole crane on the warehouse roof.

explore  probe  delve into  search  examine

13

career/kəˈrɪr/

شغل حرفه

اسم

You know how important my career is to me.
Ahead of her lay college and a possible career in journalism.

profession  occupation  vocation  calling  employment

14

degree/dəˈgriː/

مدرک دانشگاهی

اسم

Every child feels displaced to some degree when a new sibling arrives.
That made some degree of sense.

level  stage  point  rung  standard

15

communications/kəmˌjunəˈkeɪʃənz/

مخابرات ارتباطات

اسم

The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
My communications capability is limited.

links, connections, services, routes

16

publishing/ˈpʌblɪʃɪŋ/

انتشارات

اسم

France is represented by the publishing firms of Ch.
Returning to Hungary, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages in the university of Budapest: there he settled down, contributing largely to periodicals, and publishing a number of books, chiefly in German and Hungarian.

issue  bring out  produce  print
make known  make public

17

journalism/ˈdʒɜrn.əlˌɪz.əm/

روزنامه‌نگاری

اسم

On his retirement from office he returned to journalism and business.
After all she had been through, journalism looked less attractive.

the newspaper business  the newspaper world  the press  the print media  the fourth estate
radio journalism

18

editor/ˈed.ə.tər/

سردبیر (روزنامه، مجله و ...) ویراستار

اسم

He was editor of the Yale Review, 1896-1910.
Some sensible observations by the editor were added to the original biography.

19

advertising/ˈæd.vərˌtɑɪ.zɪŋ/

تبلیغات آگهی بازرگانی

اسم

Then do some advertising and keep him busy.
About 1689 his health, never very strong, began to fail seriously and he gradually withdrew from his public engagements, ceasing his communications to the Royal Society, and advertising his desire to be excused from receiving guests, "unless upon occasions very extraordinary," on Tuesday and Friday forenoon, and Wednesday and Saturday afternoon.

publicize  make public  make known  give publicity to  bill

20

public relations/ˌpʌblɪk rɪˈleɪʃnz/

روابط عمومی

اسم

21

financial analyst/fəˈnænʃəl ˈænələst/

تحلیلگر مالی

اسم

22

stockbroker/ˈstɑːkbroʊkər/

دلال سهام دلال بورس و اوراق بهادار

اسم

Boston stockbroker Thomas Larson wrote Friday the Thirteenth, a book about a horrible businessman who attempted to crash the stock market on that date.
Her husband is stockbroker Tom Mahoney, whom she recently married.

23

tax adviser/tæks ædˈvaɪzər/

مشاور مالیاتی

اسم

24

financial/fɑɪˈnæn.tʃəl/

مالی

صفت

The dairy wasn't simply a financial endeavor, as Mums had thought.
I was thinking about buying a new vehicle and wondered if we had the money, so I looked at his financial information on the computer.

monetary  money  economic  pecuniary  banking

25

sector/ˈsektər/

بخش حوزه

اسم

If only he didn't have to tour the Sector tonight!
It leaves us with two, plus Sector HQ.

part  branch  arm  division  subdivision

26

nursing/ˈnɜrsɪŋ/

پرستاری

اسم

Jeff's father is dead and his mother is in a nursing home.
Sonya and Natasha were nursing him.

carer  caregiver  attendant
Florence Nightingale  nursey
candy-striper
nanny  childminder

27

health care/hɛlθ kɛr/

مراقبت‎های بهداشتی بهداشت و درمان، مراقبت سلامت

اسم

28

psychiatric/ˌsaɪkiˈætrɪk/

روان پزشکی

صفت

There's a good chance Donnie is finally about to get some psychiatric help— help a long time coming.
A 2004 survey showed that nearly 14.8 percent of adult Americans met diagnostic criteria for personality disorders as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

29

pediatrician/ˌpiːdiəˈtrɪʃn/

متخصص اطفال

اسم

It is important to consult a dermatologist or pediatrician if a child sheds hair in large amounts (more than 100 hairs per day for longer than four weeks) after combing, brushing, or shampooing or if the hair becomes significantly thinner.
Should the cradle cap persist beyond the aid of dandruff shampoo, your child's pediatrician may prescribe a prescription hydrocortisone cream that works to control the irritation and hormonal activity in affected areas.

30

surgeon/ˈsɜːrdʒən/

جراح

اسم

31

telemarketing/ˈtelimɑːrkɪtɪŋ/

بازاریابی تلفنی فروش تلفنی

اسم

By signing up for this list, you are blocking cell phone numbers from being displayed on the usual telemarketing phone lists.
Bill is a New York native who owns a lucrative sales and telemarketing firm.

32

business management/ˈbɪznəs ˈmænəʤmənt/

مدیریت اجرایی کسب و کار

اسم

33

construction/kənˈstrʌk.ʃən/

ساخت و ساز

اسم

He explained the construction of the room and its purposes.
Shall we forever resign the pleasure of construction to the carpenter?

building  erection  putting up  setting up  raising

34

industry/ˈɪndəstri/

صنعت

اسم

He was at a place in the industry where he did what he pleased.
The mass food industry of today cannot make this claim.

manufacturing  production  fabrication  construction
business  trade

35

civil engineer/ˌsɪvl endʒɪˈnɪr/

مهندس عمران

اسم

36

contractor/kənˈtræktər/

پیمانکار

اسم

Imagine you are a defense contractor on top of the world.
In the first mentioned, the contract system, by which a contractor hires the prisoner's labour from the state, has proved very profitable, but at the sacrifice of discipline and neglect of reformatory processes upon the individual.

37

construction worker/kənˈstrʌkʃən ˈwɜrkər/

کارگر ساختمانی

اسم

38

interpreter/ɪnˈtɜrprətər/

مترجم (شفاهی)

اسم

He was a seer and interpreter of signs, and a man of considerable influence.
An interpreter rode up to the group.

translator  transcriber  transliterator  decipherer
dragoman
performer  presenter

39

translator/trænsˈleɪtər/

مترجم

اسم

Kiera tapped her translator and shook her head.
His woman was speaking too quickly for the translator to keep up.

interpreter  transcriber  transliterator  paraphraser  decipherer
linguist

40

travel industry/ˈtrævəl ˈɪndəstri/

صنعت مسافرت

اسم

41

accounting/əˈkaʊntɪŋ/

حسابداری

اسم

Finally, there is the same set of problems in respect to accounting and control in local as in central finance.
Moliere's manner of accounting for this is famous in literary history or legend.

description  report  version  story  narration

42

accountant/əˈkɑʊnt.ənt/

حسابدار

اسم

He was, after all, taking time off work during the busiest time of the year for an accountant to be with her.
"What's that that has fallen?" asked the accountant with a naive smile.

43

architecture/ˈɑrkəˌtɛkʧər/

معماری

اسم

The architecture was fantastic, but not near as exciting as the ride on a ferry.
Unlike Chinese art it has a genius for architecture and sculpture rather than painting.

building design  planning  building  construction
architectonics
building style  design

44

architect/ˈɑrkəˌtɛkt/

معمار

اسم

Great Architect of Nature, help me to find the true path out of the labyrinth of lies!
The architect was Mnesicles; the material Pentelic marble, with Eleusinian blackstone for dados and other details.

designer  planner  builder  building consultant  draughtsman
originator

45

carpenter/ˈkɑrpəntər/

نجار

اسم

These are in some genera From Carpenter, Proc. R.
Carpenter had seen the block ships go in.

woodworker, joiner, cabinetmaker
wright
chippy, Chips

46

counseling/ˈkaʊnsəlɪŋ/

مشاوره

اسم

I don't need counseling from the people who caused this nightmare.
Everybody said she needed counseling, but what she really needed was time ... and to be left alone.

advice  guidance  direction  instruction  information

47

counsellor/kˈaʊnsɛlɚ/

مشاور

اسم

(1866); and Theodore Beza, the Counsellor of the French Reformation (1899).
and a counsellor of the empire in 1877 and C.I.E.

adviser  consultant  guide  mentor  confidant

48

dentist/ˈden.t̬ɪst/

دندانپزشک

اسم

Couldn't he have gone to the doctor or the dentist or some­place?
Dean had to agree, but going to Philadelphia was like a visit to the dentist: once in a while you had to do it but nobody liked it.

49

dentistry/ˈdentɪstri/

دندان پزشکی

اسم

After preparing a small volume of miscellanies, which was published by subscription, he studied dentistry with Anthony Norris Groves in Exeter.
In 1896 the department of dentistry was established.

50

design/dɪˈzaɪn/

الگوسازی طراحی

اسم

Sonya sat in the drawing room at the round table, copying a design for embroidery.
That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.

plan  blueprint  drawing  scale drawing  sketch

51

designer/dɪˈzaɪnər/

طراح

اسم

Tables with designer shoes on them stood beside the truck.
The principal condition operating in the design of locomotives intended for local services with frequent stops is the degree of acceleration required, the aim of the designer being to produce an engine which shall be able to bring the train to its journey speed in the shortest time possible.

creator  deviser  producer  inventor  originator

52

editing/ˈedɪtɪŋ/

تدوین سردبیری

اسم

At the time of his death he was editing the Sifra.
They do not point to any critical editing of the text; for the aim of the Massoretes was essentially conservative.

correct  check  copy-edit
improve  revise  emend

53

engineering/ˈɛnʤəˈnɪrɪŋ/

مهندسی

اسم

While she knew his genetic engineering made him harder to kill, she'd never imagined he'd survived.
The shipbuilding and engineering trades are active and advancing.

designer  planner  builder  architect  producer

54

engineer/ˌen.dʒəˈnɪr/

مهندس

اسم

It was then fortified by the engineer.
He entered the army as an engineer, and attained the rank of captain.

designer  planner  builder  architect  producer

55

financial analysis/fəˈnænʃəl əˈnæləsəs/

تحلیل مالی

اسم

56

lawyer/ˈlɔɪ.ər/

وکیل

اسم

Maybe she wanted to talk to a lawyer first.
I'll have to talk to my lawyer about this.

legal practitioner  attorney  legal officer  legal adviser  legal representative

57

manager/ˈmæn.ɪdʒ.ər/

مدیر

اسم

executive  head of department  line manager  supervisor  principal

58

management/ˈmænɪdʒmənt/

مدیریت

اسم

This left the management of the business to the other three.
Jonathan had band practice with his friends and Alex was in his recliner, reading a letter from a wildlife management area in Colorado.

administration  running  managing  organization
charge  care

59

nurse/nɜrs/

پرستار

اسم

"I've come to sit with you a bit, Masha," said the nurse, "and here I've brought the prince's wedding candles to light before his saint, my angel," she said with a sigh.
Martha is a trauma nurse in a large Boston hospital.

carer  caregiver  attendant
Florence Nightingale  nursey
candy-striper
nanny  childminder

60

pediatrics/ˌpiːdiˈætrɪks/

پزشکی کودکان طب اطفال

اسم

She sent to Bartlesville for information on the pediatrics ward and hinted at interest in a job there.
I see here you've only been working in pediatrics for a month, but you have an impressive job history for a girl your age.

61

photographer/fəˈtɑg.rə.fər/

عکاس

اسم

The elderly photographer was as bad as Fred.
The photographer coached Xander how to stand.

lensman, paparazzo, documentarian
cameraman
snapper
shutterbug
photographist

62

photography/fəˈtɑg.rə.fi/

عکاسی

اسم

Even the pictures on the wall were black and white photography in black frames.
The gold chloride of commerce, which is used in photography, is really a hydrochloride, chlorauric or aurichloric acid, HAuC1 4.3H 2 O, and is obtained in long yellow needles by crystallizing the acid solution.

63

physiotherapy/ˌfɪzioʊˈθerəpi/

فیزیوتراپی

اسم

MBT shoes have been recommended by podiatrists and orthopedic and physiotherapy specialists.
physiotherapy intervention can prevent acute problems becoming chronic.

64

physiotherapist/ˌfɪzioʊˈθerəpɪst/

متخصص فیزیوتراپی فیزیوتراپیست

اسم

continence Physiotherapist for assessment and advice.
Are you a doctor or physiotherapist with an interest in swimming, or know of anyone who fits this description?

65

plumber/ˈplʌm.ər/

لوله‌کش

اسم

A plumber named Otto Gruber out in Archbald listed it.
Super Mario Strikers is the newest addition to the series of games by Nintendo that takes everyone's favorite plumber and all of his friends (and enemies), and throws them into the sports arena.

66

psychiatry/saɪˈkaɪətri/

روانپزشکی

اسم

Dr. Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal, a German doctor who was a full professor of psychiatry at the Berlin Charité Hospital at a time when the separation between neurology and psychiatry was virtually nonexistent, did not share this view.
For someone entering the fields of education, medicine, psychiatry, or social services there is a way for them to become involved in treating autism.

67

psychologist/sɑɪˈkɑl.ə.dʒɪst/

روانشناس

اسم

The psychologist investigates the ideal construction of the self, i.e.
The psychologist and the formal logician do indeed join hands in the denial of a real movement of thought in syllogism.

68

psychology/saɪˈkɑləʤi/

روانشناسی

اسم

He wrote both on psychology and on metaphysics, but is known especially as a historian of philosophy.
An investigator, pledging himself to no beliefs - even perhaps one who definitely disbelieves and rejects theism - may yet interest himself in tracking out the psychology of religion.

study of the mind  science of the mind  science of the personality  study of the mental processes
mindset  mind

69

publisher/ˈpʌblɪʃər/

ناشر

اسم

The hesitant visitor was Gladys Turnbull's "publisher" from New Mexico.
During this time he had been gradually completing his great work, which was produced by a London publisher in 1691-1692, 2 vols.

70

sales/seɪlz/

فروش

اسم

Between 1884 and 1902 no fewer than 220,61 6 sales were effected for failure to pay taxes, while, from 1886 to 1902, 79,208 expropriations were effected for other debts not due to the state.
How are the sales going?

selling  vending  disposal
dealing  trading  bargaining
deal

71

sales representative/ˈseɪlz reprɪzentətɪv/

نماینده فروش

اسم

72

surgery/ˈsɜr.dʒə.ri/

جراحی

اسم

Alex was still in surgery when they arrived.
Alex came through the surgery fine.

73

zoologist/zuˈɑːlədʒɪst/

جانورشناس

اسم

The great Arthropod class, the Crustacea, presents to the zoologist at the present day an immense range of forms,.
The most famous zoologist contemporary with these men was Salomon Dreier (1813-1842).

74

zoology/zəʊˈɒlədʒi/

جانورشناسی

اسم

I am studying about insects in zoology, and I have learned many things about butterflies.
In zoology, the Bipartiti was a name given by P. A.



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