درس 11


ردیف

واژه

معنی

نقش گرامری

1

affect/əˈfɛkt/

تحت تاثیر قرار دادن تغییر دادن

فعل

I didn't think about how it might affect you if I got hurt out there.
It wasn't possible that it could affect their life together.

influence  exert influence on  have an effect on  act on  work on

2

situation/ˌsɪtʃ.uˈeɪ.ʃən/

وضعیت موقعیت

اسم

I don't know how I got into this situation in the first place.
I'm in a precarious situation here.

circumstances  set of circumstances  state of affairs  affairs  state

3

change/tʃeɪndʒ/

تغییر کردن عوض کردن، تغییر دادن

فعل

alter  make different  become different  undergo a change  make alterations to

4

trend/trend/

روند جریان

اسم

The isothermal lines trend from south-east to north-west.
He was now in open conflict with the whole trend of public opinion.

tendency  movement  drift  swing  shift

5

traffic congestion/ˈtræfɪk kənˈʤɛsʧən/

تراکم ترافیکی ازدحام ترافیک

اسم

6

working/ˈwɜr.kɪŋ/

شاغل

صفت

She's working at the hospital to pay for her education.
But you haven't been working there all that long.

employed  in work  in a job  waged  in gainful employment
functioning

7

pollution/pəˈluʃən/

آلودگی

اسم

Heathenish cults and forbidden manners and customs are a pollution to the land and a deep insult to the true God.
They may also take proceedings in respect of the pollution of a stream by any solid or liquid sewage matter.

contamination  contaminating  adulteration  adulterating  tainting

8

ageing/ˈeɪdʒɪŋ/

رو به پیری در حال پیر شدن

صفت

Two years are usually required for ageing, but some tobaccos are kept for four or five years before being manufactured.
The cessation of assisted immigration early in the life of the present generation is alleged to have had considerable influence upon the rate, in Victoria, at least, owing to the curtailment of the supply of adult women of the more conceptive ages and the ageing of those who had reached the country at an earlier date.

number of years  lifetime  duration  length of life
stage of life  generation

9

population/ˌpɑpjəˈleɪʃən/

جمعیت

اسم

The population of the nearest big city was growing.
Half the population of his planet had been decimated by famine and war.

inhabitants  residents  people  citizens  citizenry

10

urban/ˈɜrbən/

شهری

صفت

It was a scene from another time as Dean's friend and his smiling wife handed the reins to the urban couple.
The town is governed by an urban district council.

built-up  town  city  inner-city  densely populated

11

development/dɪˈvel.əp.mənt/

توسعه پیشرفت، بهبود

اسم

But three years later a new economic development began.
"There's enough rock here to build a housing development," she commented as they worked their way across a jumble of flat red rocks.

evolution  growth  maturing  expansion  enlargement

12

unemployment/ˌʌn.ɪmˈplɔɪ.mənt/

بیکاری

اسم

The unemployment rate in Ouray was one-point-four.
How many of them have filed for unemployment since they graduated?

13

society/səˈsaɪəti/

جامعه اجتماع

اسم

I thought maybe I wasn't high society material.
He had a brilliant position in society thanks to his intimacy with Countess Bezukhova, a brilliant position in the service thanks to the patronage of an important personage whose complete confidence he enjoyed, and he was beginning to make plans for marrying one of the richest heiresses in Petersburg, plans which might very easily be realized.

the community  the public  the general public  the people  the population
civilization

14

change/tʃeɪndʒ/

تغییر

اسم

alter  make different  become different  undergo a change  make alterations to

15

recently/ˈriː.sənt.li/

اخیرا جدیدا

قید

You have been in Paris recently, I believe?
Did he kill someone here recently and decide it was a nice place to keep?

not long ago  a short time ago  in the last few days  in the last few months  in the last few weeks

16

environmental/enˌvɑɪ.rənˈmen.təl/

محیطی زیست‌محیطی

صفت

These attempts to reject environmental variation rest on several grounds.
And greener (in the environmental way, not the color way).

17

matter/ˈmæt̬.ər/

مشکل مسئله

اسم

As a matter of fact, I think we're on completely different planets.
"It doesn't matter," Alex said.

material  substance  stuff  medium
affair  business

18

air pollution/ɛr pəˈluʃən/

آلودگی هوا

اسم

contamination  contaminating  adulteration  adulterating  tainting

19

biodegradable/ˌbaɪoʊdəˈgreɪdəbəl/

زیست‌فروسایش‌پذیر (زیست شناسی)

صفت

Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
The eco-friendly cafe offers biodegradable to-go containers and recycles everything it can.

20

drought/draʊt/

خشکسالی

اسم

Heat and drought had continued for more than three weeks.
The drought is severe; rain falls rarely and in small quantities.

dry spell, dry period, lack of rain, shortage of water
drouth

21

energy-saving/ˈɛnərʤi-ˈseɪvɪŋ/

کم‌مصرف

صفت

brightness of these energy-saving lamps makes all other ESL reflectors look outmoded.
For instance, if every household used energy-saving light bulbs, a power station could be closed.

22

environment-friendly/ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt-ˈfrɛndli/

سازگار با محیط زیست

صفت

23

global warming/ˌgloʊ.bəlˈwɔːr.mɪŋ/

گرمایش جهانی گرم شدن کره زمین

اسم

24

landfill/ˈlændˌfɪl/

خاک‌چال (محل) دفن زباله زیر خاک

اسم

destined for landfill.
dispose of ultimate residual waste by using landfill.

25

natural resources/ˈnæʧərəl ˈrisɔrsɪz/

منابع طبیعی

اسم

26

toxic/ˈtɑksɪk/

سمی

صفت

Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
But every antiseptic, however good is more or less toxic and irritating to a wounded surface.

poisonous  venomous  virulent  noxious  dangerous

27

chemical/ˈkem.ə.kəl/

ماده شیمیایی

اسم

The chemical smell suggested they were going in the right direction.
The advances were not merely mechanical but chemical as well.

28

consumption/kənˈsʌmpʃən/

مصرف خوردن، آشامیدن

اسم

There was a rising worldwide consumption of consumer goods.
The export trade, however, is decreasing considerably, while the home consumption is increasing.

eating  devouring  ingestion  swallowing  gobbling

29

overwhelming/ˌoʊvərˈwɛlmɪŋ/

اثرگذار عظیم، زیاد

صفت

Harding by an overwhelming vote.
"The diamonds were a bit overwhelming for daily wear," she admitted.

very large  profuse  enormous  immense  inordinate

30

protect/prəˈtekt/

محافظت کردن

فعل

They are elected or appointed to protect the rights of the citizens, yet they become the agents of their death.
"I can't protect you," she said.

keep safe  keep from harm  save  safeguard  shield

31

consume/kənˈsum/

مصرف کردن استفاده کردن، غذا خوردن

فعل

Their chief food is grass and seeds, but they also consume roots.
They sat that way for a long time, silently watching the evening shadows grow long and then consume the sky.

eat  eat up  devour  ingest  swallow

32

climate/ˈklɑɪ.mət/

آب و هوا (جغرافی) اقلیم

اسم

The climate is equable and healthy.
The climate of Sardinia is more extreme than that of Italy, but varies considerably in different districts.

weather pattern  weather conditions  weather  atmospheric conditions
region  area

33

ocean/ˈoʊ.ʃən/

اقیانوس

اسم

She faced the ocean, the moon dangling low and large in the sky before her.
The sight, sound and scent of the ocean helped her relax.

sea  the sea
the drink
the briny
salt chuck
the deep  the waves  the main  the foam

34

rise/raɪz/

بالا رفتن افزایش یافتن

فعل

She started to rise from her chair.
Lisa started to rise from her chair, but Giddon was faster.

move up  move upwards  come up  go up  make its way up

35

level/ˈlev.əl/

سطح

اسم

The carpenters tried to keep the dust level down, but it was impossible to avoid all of it.
I cannot bear this level of abuse.

flat  smooth  even  uniform  plane

36

carbon dioxide/ˌkɑr.bən.dɑɪˈɑk.sɑɪd/

دی اکسید کربن (شیمی)

اسم

37

atmosphere/ˈæt.məsˌfɪr/

جو اتمسفر

اسم

The atmosphere felt stiff and formal, as if this was not part of their routine.
It may also be prepared by heating ammonium oxalate; by passing induction sparks between carbon points in an atmosphere of nitrogen.

air  aerosphere  airspace  sky
the heavens  the firmament

38

oil/ɔɪl/

نفت

اسم

The warm farmhouse smelled of gun oil and breakfast.
Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.

39

coal/koʊl/

زغال سنگ زغال

اسم

The city has immense coal piers.
Coal is found in the ground, too.

40

save/seɪv/

ذخیره کردن

فعل

You have a chance to save yourself.
He did save your life, you know.

41

conserve/kənˈsɜrv/

صرفه‌جویی کردن

فعل

The Code did not merely embody contemporary custom or conserve ancient law.
In both these cases, however, it is the clove-gillyflower which is intended, as it is also in the passage from Gerard, in which he states that the conserve made of the flowers with sugar "is exceeding cordiall, and wonderfully above measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten now and then."

42

public transportation/ˌpʌb.lɪk.træn.spɔːrˈteɪ.ʃən/

حمل و نقل عمومی وسایل نقلیه عمومی

اسم

43

quality/ˈkwɑl.ət̬.i/

کیفیت

اسم

She felt the quality of the material.
The speed and quality of those algorithms will get ever better.

44

avoid/əˈvɔɪd/

دوری کردن اجتناب کردن، پرهیز کردن

فعل

You can't avoid conflict all the time.
Why lie when she made it so easy for him to avoid talking about it at all?

45

contaminate/kənˈtæməˌneɪt/

آلوده کردن

فعل

They also contaminate clothing, which thus becomes another means of dissemination capable of acting at a distance.
Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after working with herbs to ensure that no bacteria from your hands contaminate the final tincture.

46

harmful/ˈhɑrmfəl/

مضر زیانبار

صفت

The Egyptian rule proved harmful to the country.
The ordinary pleasures of life were for them not merely negligible but positively harmful inasmuch as they interrupted the operation of the will.

47

recycle/ˌriːˈsaɪ.kl/

بازیافت کردن

فعل

Recycle your glass, paper, metal, and plastic products to reduce pollution, save trees, prevent wildlife habitat destruction, conserve energy and natural resources, and divert materials from incinerators and landfills.
We return the plastic bags to the grocery store for them to recycle.

48

packaging/ˈpækɪdʒɪŋ/

بسته‌بندی

اسم

Maybe she called the cigarettes 'old' because the packaging looked unfamiliar.
Now your 'contents' are something extra special so regardless of the packaging, you're still first class to me.

wrapping, wrappers, packing, cover, covering

49

decompose/ˌdikəmˈpoʊz/

تجزیه شدن متلاشی شدن، پوسیدن

فعل

It separates in the form of small rose-red crystals, which decompose on boiling with water.
On heating, they decompose, forming basic tetrammine salts.

decay  rot  putrefy  go bad  go off

50

shortage/ˈʃɔrtəʤ/

کمبود

اسم

There was no shortage of rocks on the mountain.
There was shortage in equipment of every kind.

scarcity  sparseness  sparsity  dearth  paucity

51

warning/ˈwɔːr.nɪŋ/

هشدار آگاهی، اطلاع

اسم

"I'm warning you," she said again, backing away.
Len shot Howard a warning look.

notice  advance notice  a word of warning  forewarning  alert
hint



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